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United States Supreme Court

Brady v. U.S.,

397 U.S. 742, at page 748

(1970)

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Waivers of constitutional rights

not only must be voluntary

but must be knowing,

intelligent acts

done with sufficient awareness

of the relevant circumstances

and likely consequencesimageimage http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=397&invol=742
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http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/397/742/imageUnited States Supreme Court

Brookhart v. Janis

384 U. S. 1

(1966)
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The question of a

waiver

of a federally guaranteed constitutional right

is, of course,

a federal question

controlled by federal law

There is a presumption against

the waiver of constitutional rights,

see, e.g.,

Glasser v. United States,

315 U. S. 60, at pages 70-71,

and,

for a waiver to be effective,

it must be clearly established that there was

“an intentional relinquishment

or

abandonment of a known right

or

privilege

In deciding the federal question

of waiver raised here,

we must, of course

look to the facts

which allegedly support the waiver

[Footnote 4]

When constitutional rights

turn on the resolution

of a factual dispute,

we are duty bound

to make an independent examination

of the evidence in the record

See, e.g.,

Edwards v. South Carolina

372 U. S. 229, at page 235

Blackburn v. Alabama

361 U. S. 199, at page 205,
n. 5image
http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=384&invol=1
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https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/384/1/case.html
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